TOP 10 CAUSES OF DROUGHT IN AFRICA
Drought is fast becoming a natural phenomenon in parts of East and South Africa. There are many causes of drought in Africa , there is need to know the causes in order. for us to come up with probable solutions and prevention plan. The top 10 are listed below.
Top 10 Causes of Drought in Africa
1. CLIMATE CHANGE : due to the depletion in the ozone layer, there is an ever increasing rise in atmospheric temperature in certain places. Countries that experience little rainfall have an even greater scarcity of rainfall. The increasing rate of evaporation from the soil and vegetation leads to drought in Africa.Causes of drought in africa
2. CONFLICT : places in Africa that are at war experience drought. This is because the government is more concerned with the allocation of the scarce resources for military purposes. In times of conflict, the welfare of the citizens are often relegated to the background with increase in destruction of the environment.
3. OCEAN TEMPERATURE : the phenomenon El Nino and La Nina are one of the key causes of drought in Africa. El nino is a weather event that occurs when the surface water in the Pacific ocean along the coast of South America rises. La Nina on the other hand refers to the decrease in the temperature of the surface water of the Pacificdroughtb El Nino and La Nina affects parts of East Africa.
4. CHANGES IN JET STREAM : Jet streams are strong winds in the upper parts of the atmosphere. Changes in the direction of to the Jet streams can cause drought in some areas.
5. CHANGES IN THE LOCAL LANDSCAPE: this is another cause of drought in Africa .
6. NEW IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES : In areas where there is scarcity of rainfall, drought is brought about when farmers have an increased dependence on water to grow their crops. This leads to the excessive use of the little water available.
7. DEFORESTATION : excessive felling of trees in a forest can lead to desertification and hence, drought.
8. OVER GRAZING : when cattle graze on a particular land excessively, it is called over grazing. Over grazing can lead to soil becoming too compact.
9. OVER FARMING : due to over population, not enough land is available for farming. This leads to excessive farming. The soil begins to lose its moisture and, over time, being unable to support plant growth.
10. GOVERNMENT POLICIES : there are not many policies in place to support water conservation and hence mitigate against drought.
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