We would be taking a look at the current conflicts in Africa with examples. For decades now, almost every country in Africa has had their fair share of conflict, some of which arises as a result of misunderstanding and disagreement and it often takes a longer period to find a middle point of agreement.
Before unveiling some of the current conflicts in Africa, there is a need to understand what conflict is. It refers to some form of discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are unaccepted or resisted by one or more members of another group. Likewise, conflict can arise between members of the same group, this is referred to as intergroup conflict and it involves violence, interpersonal discord conflict. It is this disagreement and has observed that conflict is now a common thing in most African countries that foster the writer to write on this topic.
CURRENT CONFLICTS IN AFRICA 2020 AND EXAMPLES
The series of conflicts in Africa has left over 9 million persons to become refugees and internally displaced people. Hundreds and thousands of people have lost their lives due to conflicts and civil wars. Below are some examples of current Conflicts In Nigeria. It is closely observed that the majority of current conflicts in Africa are more of arms conflicts.
- The Somali Civil War (the 1980s – date)
This is an ongoing civil war in Somalia. The Civil War was born out of resistance to the military during the 1980s and it is led by Siad Barre. The Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups by 1988–90, including the Somali National Movement in the northwest, the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, and the United Somali Congress in the South. In 1991, the clan-based armed opposition groups manageably overthrew the Barre government.
From 2009 to date, the phase of the Somali Civil War is concentrated more in southern Somalia. It began with the conflict between the forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, assisted by African Union peacekeeping troops, and various militant terrorist groups and factions in early February 2009. The violence has displaced thousands of people in Southern Somalia.
- Libyan Civil War (2014–date)
This is the second Civil War in Libya and it is an ongoing conflict among rival factions who are seeking to take control of the territory and crude oil of Libya. The conflict at the was initially mostly between the government of the House of Representatives (HoR) that was elected controversially in 2014, also known as the “Tobruk government”; and the rival General National Congress (GNC) endorsed government, also called the “ National Salvation Government “, based in Tripoli, the capital.
- Ethnic violence in South Sudan (2011 – date)
Ethnic violence in South Sudan is not just springing up among South Sudan’s varied ethnic groups. There are 64 Tribes in South Sudan with the largest being the Dinka tribe and the second-largest are the Nuers. The Dinkas makeup about 35% of the population and predominate in government. Conflict is often heightened among nomadic groups concerning issues of cattle and grazing land and it forms part of the wider Sudanese nomadic conflicts.
- Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 – date)
The year 2009 was the beginning of the Boko Haram insurgency began in Nigeria, when the jihadist rebel group began an armed rebellion against the Nigerian government. In 2012, there was tension within the Boko Haram sect which resulted in a gradual split of the group between the Salafist conservative sect led by Abu Usmatul al-Ansari, and the more dominant and violent sect led by Abubakar Shekau. By 2015, Shekau’s faction became ISIL’s West Africa branch.
- Communal Conflicts in Nigeria (1998 – date)
This is a long time and the current conflict in Nigeria. Communal conflicts in Nigeria can be categorized into two categories:
- Ethnic Conflicts: this can be divided into cultural, ethnic, or religious communities and identities. Cultural conflicts and religious conflicts concurrently (i.e. religious violence between Christian and Muslim communities).
- Herder-Farmer Conflicts: common disputes is about land and/or cattle between cattle rearer(in particular the Fulani or Hausa) and farmers (in particular the Tiv or Tarok). The states where this is commonly impacted states are those of the Nigerian Middle Belt like Benue, Taraba, and Plateau. In 2004 and 2011, violence reached its peak with around 2,000 casualties those years. It also resulted in more than 700 casualties in 2015.
- ISIL Insurgency in Tunisia (2015 – date)
The current ISIL insurgency in Tunisia is the ongoing militant and terror activity of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) branch in Tunisia. The activity of ISIL in Tunisia started in June 2015, with the Sousse attacks, though ISIL claimed to be responsible for an earlier terror incident in Bardo Museum in March 2015, the Tunisian government blamed the terror attack onOkba Ibn Nafaa Brigade. After that incidence, there followed massive border clashes near Ben Guerdane in March 2016, and ISIL activity was described as an armed insurgency, the group switched from previous tactics of sporadic suicide attacks to attempts to gain control of the territory.
- Sinai Insurgency (2011 – date)
The Sinai insurgency is between Islamist militants and Egyptian security forces and it is a current and ongoing conflict in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The insurgency includes attacks on civilians and it began after the start of the Egyptian Crisis, which saw the longtime Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak overthrown from the government during the Egyptian revolution of 2011.
- The war in Darfur, Sudan (2003 – date)
The War in Darfur is nicknamed the Land Cruiser War. It began in February 2003 and it is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan when the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups and Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) began fighting the Sudanese government, which the groups accused of oppressing Darfur’s non-Arab population. The government, on the other hand, responded to the attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against non– Arabs of Darfur’s which resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of civilians.
- Central African Republic Civil War (2012 – date)
The conflict in the Central African Republic which involves the government, the rebels from the Séléka coalition and the Anti-balaka militias.
- The Northern Mali Conflict (2012 – date)
The Northern Mali Conflict referred to as Mali Civil War, is the armed conflict that began in January 2012 between the northern part of Mali and southern parts of Mali in Africa. Several insurgent groups on 16 January 2012, began to fight a campaign against the government of Mali for independence or greater autonomy for Azawad an area in northern Mali. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) in April 2012 had taken control of the region. The essence of the movement is to make this area of Mali an independent homeland for the Tuareg people.
- Oromo–Somali clashes (2016 – 2017)
This conflict began in December 2016. The Oromo–Somali clashes began following a territorial dispute between Oromo and Somali communities in Ethiopia. Hundreds of people were killed and yet to be settled.
- Islamist Insurgency in Mozambique (2017 – date)
This insurgency is currently ongoing in Mozambique, between Ansar al-Sunna, an Islamist militant group attempting to establish an Islamic state in Mozambique, and Mozambican security forces in Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique. Civilians have been targeted by Islamist militants.
Conclusion on Current Conflicts In Africa 2020
It’s sad that there is too much conflict on the continent of Africa. Several conflicts arising almost on a daily basis. It has raised worries in the mind of many who wonder when all conflicts will be resolved and eventually the white flag of peace will be raised. These conflicts are actually ruining the socio-economic growth of the continent because foreign investors are running away for their lives. The current Conflicts In Africa is more of armed conflict. Several measures put in place to curb the conflict and restore agreement and peace, it has all proved abortive.
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