Before going into the functions of federal government in Nigeria, it is good to know that Nigeria, the African giant runs a 3-tiered system of government with the federal government as the most powerful. At each level of government, there are three arms also. The executive, led by the President, the legislature, led by the Senate President and the Judiciary, led by the Chief Judge. The country is the Federal Republic and it is the President that exercises the executive power. The President is the head of state and is also the head of government in the country.
- The Legislative power is exercised by the bifocal Nigerian National Assembly, which is made up of two chambers: the House of Representatives and also the Senate. The upper chamber which is the Senate is superior to the House of Representatives. The two chambers constitute the law-making arm of government in Nigeria and are collectively referred to as the National Assembly.
- The statutory responsibility of the National Assembly is to make laws and also serve as a check on the excesses of other arms of government, example, the executive arm of government.
- The judiciary is the third arm of government in Nigeria and it is often said that the Judiciary is the last hope of the common man. TheSupreme Court of Nigeria is the highest court in the land and was established immediately after Nigeria gained her independence.
The Nigerian system of government is fashioned after that of the United States of Government based on Baron de Montesquieu’s theory, which has to do with the separation of powers. So let’s discuss the functions of the federal government of Nigeria in details.
Functions Of Federal Government Of Nigeria
The federal government of Nigeria as the highest government in the land is saddled with numerous responsibilities. Let’s look at some of them.
- Maintenance of Law and Order
This is one of the core functions of the federal government of Nigeria. It is imperative that law and order are maintained in any country for the country to function. In order to achieve this, agencies such as the police, the armed forces, and also the court of law, have been established. These agencies of government help to protect the rights and liberties of Nigerian citizens and residents of the country. Individuals who run afoul of the laws and regulations of the country at promptly arrested and tried in a court of law as the case may be. Those found guilty of contravening the laws of the country are then sent to Prison to serve time.
- Protection of Lives and Properties
Securing the lives, properties, and investments of Nigerians is another important duty of the government. The Federal government must ensure that the rights and lives of Nigerian citizens both home and abroad are protected. This way, Nigerians get to live their lives fully without fear or intimidation as they are sure the Federal government is security their lives and properties.
- Promotion of Democracy and Social Justice
It is the duty of every democratically elected government to protect and promote democracy and social justice. It is widely acknowledged that democracy represents the best system of government currently as it encourages political inclusiveness and participatory governance. Simply put, democracy puts more power in the hands of the people than other forms of government as it is the government of the people, by the people and for the people, according to Abraham Lincoln. Democracy promotes social justice which is quite good. It is, therefore, one of the functions of the federal government of Nigeria to promote democracy and also promote social justice for the purpose of ensuring that Nigerian citizens fully enjoy their rights, as well as realize their individual potentials.
- Provision of Social Welfare Service
One of the direct benefits of citizens from any responsible government is the provision of social welfare services. It is, therefore, the responsibility of the Nigerian federal government to provide social welfare for its citizenry. This the government achieves through its revenue earned both internally and from foreign sources. These funds are used to provide basic welfare services for citizens such as roads, provision of potable water, health care, electricity, education and so on. Providing of these social welfare services will improve the quality of life of Nigerians.
- Promotion of Economic Development
It is the duty of the federal government of Nigeria to put in place good government policies that will trigger economic growth in the country thereby translating to better living for citizens of the country. It is also important that the government puts in place programs that will lead to advancement in all ramifications for the country to ensure the well being of the citizens.
- Protection of Human Rights
Every human being has rights which must be protected at all times by relevant authorities and governments. In Nigeria, it is the responsibility of the federal government to protect the rights of every resident in the country. The Nigerian federal government ensures that the fundamental rights of each citizen are protected.
- Enactment of Laws
The federal government through its legislative arm is charged with the responsibility of enacting laws that will help to protect and guide citizens of Nigeria. These laws help to prevent the breakdown of law and order, safeguard lives and properties and ensure the smooth running of the country.
- Foreign Relations
No nation of the world is an island. There have to be relations with other nations. It is the duty of the federal government to relate with other countries on issues bordering on trade, security, growth and development and so on. This ensures that the interests of Nigerians are protected in world politics.
- Job creation
Creation of employment opportunities for citizens is one of the functions of the federal government of Nigeria. This Nigerian federal government does by promoting and providing employment opportunities for its people.As part of this effort of job creation, it is expected of the Nigerian federal government to ensure that an enabling environment is provided, as a way of encouragement to its citizens to avail themselves of such opportunities so as to better their lives. A way through which the Federal government does this is through its police such as giving out subsidy on some products, removal or reduction in excise duty on some imports and also a cut in taxes.
- Protection of the Territory Integrity of Nigeria
It is the duty of the Federal government of Nigeria to protect the territorial integrity of Nigeria. It does this through the Armed Forces who would defend the country from external threats. The Nigeria Arms forces are made up of the Army, the Navy, and the Airforce.
- FUNCTIONS OF LEGISLATURE IN NIGERIA
- FUNCTIONS OF JUDICIARY IN NIGERIA
- FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES IN NIGERIA
- FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN NIGERIA
- FUNCTIONS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA
Conclusion On Functions Of The Federal Government Of Nigeria
Nigeria with a population of about 200 million people is the most populated country in Africa. The country runs a democratic system of government. There are three tiers of government in Nigeria, the Federal, the State and the Local government and each tier also has 3 arms which are the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. All of them work together to ensure the smooth running of the country. The Federal government is the most powerful tier of government and it carries out highly sensitive duties such as protection of territory interior of the country, regularly foreign trade, maintenance of law and order, job creation and so on.
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